The winter pruning process is two fold. There are various pruning and tying methods but I'll be explaing what we do only. All but 3-4 canes are pruned from last years growth on the first pass through. This is very labor intensive, for an average row in our vineyard it takes 3 hours to prune. Our rows vary in size, but generally there are 100-140 vines in each row. The "winning canes" are medium in size, not too large (buds too far apart) and not too small (too thin and buds too close together). A general rule of thumb is to keep 3-4 canes that are about the thickness of a no. 2 pencil.
Another pass is made once the entire vineyard is pruned and the canes are tied to the trellis system (fancy vineyard talk for wires) like you can see in the picture on the right. From here, the vineyard is ready for spring and summer. A relatively cool start to the growing season isn't all bad as it delays bud break and lessens the risk of frost. Once it warms up, the vineyard does best if it stays warm.
This is how the journey of the 2018 vintage starts.